Moon’s South Pole The New Space Gold Rush

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In a bold move that could redefine the future of space exploration, India’s space agency is poised to attempt a spacecraft landing on the moon’s south pole. This mission, if successful, could not only propel India’s space ambitions to new heights but also deepen our understanding of lunar water ice—one of the moon’s potentially most valuable resources. As nations and private companies alike eye the moon with renewed interest, the presence of frozen water on its surface is emerging as a game-changer, with implications reaching as far as possible moon colonies, lunar mining, and even missions to Mars.

The quest for water on the moon has been a long and winding one, starting with speculation in the 1960s, pre-dating the first Apollo landing. Early lunar samples returned by Apollo crews seemed to refute these speculations, appearing dry and barren. However, a breakthrough came in 2008 when researchers at Brown University, armed with new technology, discovered traces of hydrogen in tiny beads of volcanic glass from the lunar samples. Subsequent missions by NASA and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) further confirmed the presence of water on the moon’s surface, with the highest concentration found in the shadowed craters of the south pole.

India’s Moon Mission: The Quest for Lunar Water Ice

India’s space agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), is attempting to land a spacecraft on the moon’s south pole. This mission is not only a significant step towards advancing India’s space ambitions but also expands our knowledge of lunar water ice. This resource, potentially one of the moon’s most valuable, has sparked interest among space agencies and private companies alike for its potential to support moon colonization, lunar mining, and even missions to Mars.

The Discovery of Water on the Moon

The possibility of water existing on the moon was speculated as early as the 1960s. However, lunar samples returned from the early Apollo missions appeared to be dry. This perception changed in 2008 when Brown University researchers revisited these samples using new technology. They discovered hydrogen within tiny beads of volcanic glass, suggesting the presence of water. The following year, a NASA instrument aboard ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 probe detected water on the moon’s surface. Interestingly, another NASA probe in the same year discovered water ice beneath the moon’s south pole, echoing evidence found by the 1998 Lunar Prospector mission that suggested the highest concentration of water ice lay in the south pole’s shadowed craters.

Why Lunar Water Matters

Water on the moon is not just interesting from a scientific curiosity standpoint. Pockets of ancient water ice could provide insights into lunar volcanoes, the materials that comets and asteroids deliver to Earth, and even the origins of our oceans. If present in sufficient quantities, lunar water ice could be a game-changer for moon exploration. It could provide drinking water, aid in cooling equipment, and even be broken down to produce hydrogen for fuel and oxygen — critical elements for supporting missions to Mars or facilitating lunar mining. The 1967 United Nations Outer Space Treaty prohibits nations from claiming ownership of the moon, but it does not prevent commercial operations. The Artemis Accords, a U.S.-led initiative setting principles for moon exploration and resource use, already has 27 signatories, though China and Russia have not signed.

The Challenges of the South Pole

The moon’s south pole is a challenging target for landing missions. It is replete with craters and deep trenches, significantly different from the equatorial region targeted by previous missions like the Apollo landings. Several attempts have failed, including Russia’s Luna-25 craft, which crashed on approach last week. Despite the risks, ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 mission is scheduled for an attempted landing this Wednesday, following a failed Indian mission in 2019. The United States and China also have missions planned for the south pole, indicating the global interest in this challenging yet potentially rewarding region.


India’s moon landing mission, if successful, could open up new horizons for lunar exploration and exploitation. The discovery of lunar water ice not only enhances our understanding of the moon’s geology and history but also paves the way for sustainable long-term human presence on the moon. It could be the key to unlocking our dreams of a moon colony and even missions to Mars.

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